Barro Negro de Oaxaca.

Barro negro es una artesanía que le ha dado fama mundial a Oaxaca; está fabricada con un barro especial.  Sus piezas bruñidas, caladas y de formas variadas son muy  cotizadas en el mercado.

Oaxaca es una entidad en el que los grupos indígenas y muchas de sus tradiciones culturales prehispánicas aun persisten. Esto se refleja en la abundante producción alfarera de sus comunidades, en las que se advierten variados niveles de ejecución, de técnica, de interpretación y de uso ya que se produce alfarería utilitaria, ceremonial y ornamental.

Una de las poblaciones más importantes en el valle de Oaxaca, en la producción de alfarería es San Bartolo  Coyotepec, población ubicada a 8 kilómetros  de la ciudad de Oaxaca, pasando el aeropuerto, esta población es reconocida por su único barro negro.


En Coyetepec, destaco por mucho tiempo la personalidad de Doña Rosa Real de Nieto que fue reconocida por su trabajo como artesana, ella le dio un brillo al barro negro cuando accidentalmente descubrió que la cerámica se podía pulir con piedra de cuarzo, de esta forma salió lo que hoy conocemos como barro negro brillante.

El  método de su elaboración  es el tradicional del torno sin ruedas, que consiste en dos platos cóncavos de barro, uno hacia abajo soportando el otro. Este método es una herencia prehispánica, las piezas se moldean sobre este torno. El proceso de elaboración dura de 20 a 30 días, que va desde el moldeado decorado, al secado  lento en cuartos cerrados.

El barro negro se extrae de un paraje cercano al pueblo, se prepara, especialmente para ser quemado, se maneja en torno o en molde y se deja secar al sol durante cuatro días, este paso le proporciona a cada pieza su delicadeza ya que es  cuando se pule para sacarle brillo y se le efectúan  los calados  que va a llevar, se vuelve a secar otros cuatro días y ya está listo para él horneado que se efectúa  hasta que se adquiere su color negro metalizado.

Diseños más utilizados son los florales, alguno de ellos intercalados con diseños de aves, el barro negro no puede almacenar agua, aunque también elaboran algunas piezas que se usan para almacenar mezcal, silbatos y una gran variedad de candelabros y cantaros.

Fuente de la información…

Ver mapa de localización de San Bartolo Coyotepec.

 

 

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